On the Origin of Mass, Inertia, and Gravity - The Unification of Electromagnetism to Gravity
By Mark Fiorentino
August 14, 2021
This paper will present the author's vision of the underlying mechanism that explains the origin of mass, gravity, and inertia. In this document, I shall demonstrate that the current concept of rest mass is a fictitious hypothesis. This paper will reveal that mass, gravity, and inertia are caused by the same physical mechanism. The mechanical process that is the central cause of force emerges from the interaction between electromagnetic particles and the space they move within. Therefore, at the foundation of reality, force or action at a distance is not the result of a particle to particle interaction. Instead, force and perpetual particle motion emerge into existence due to a particle field to space field interaction. The model of reality that I speak of is called the Theory of Super Relativity. Super Relativity is based upon a metaphysical interpretation that confirms Einstein's vision of our physical Universe. Therefore, I believe that Einstein assumed that we live in a real objective Universe. I will describe the constituent parts of this physical realm and show how the individual components of reality interact with space to generate fields of force, action at a distance, and autonomous motion of all particle/field types. The mechanistic view I propose corrects the incompleteness of both Special and General Relativity. This solution also demonstrates the complete futility of using Quantum Mechanics as a path leading to a Theory of Everything. The unity of the true forces of nature comes about by discovering and using the proper definition of what force is. In this paper, I demonstrate that force fields are deformations of the continuous aether. The motion of the one primary field (the Electrostatic Field) within space causes the two secondary fields to emerge into reality. Large scale secondary fields of force materialize due to the interaction of particle fields in various types of motion relative to the spatial medium. The definition of the primary and secondary force fields will be provided in this paper.
The unification of gravity to electromagnetism has been a long-standing problem that goes back to James Clerk Maxwell's era. Later on, Albert Einstein was the first to fully articulate the goal of unifying gravity to electromagnetism. Einstein helped us understand how the force of gravity worked by demonstrating that the gravitational force bent the geometry of space. The specific type of deformation that occurs due to a gravitational field is a simple contraction of space. This is a fact of our reality that many modern-day physicists have not fully acknowledged. The recognition that the contraction of space is equivalent to gravity has not been accepted because of misinterpretations of Einstein’s theories.
Newton gave us a formula that showed the strength of gravity, but that formula did not reveal to the world how gravity exerts its force of attraction. In neither case was the mechanical origin of the gravitational field explained. Until the theory of Super Relativity, we did not have a mechanical explanation for the origin of mass, gravity, or inertia. This is the critical issue that needs to be addressed. We must have the full foundational, mechanical explanation for how all three of these phenomena work. As it turns out, all three have the same mechanical cause.
The Early Mathematical Formulations are Clues that Point to a Pattern to be Recognized
Both Einstein and Newton demonstrate that there is a link between gravity and accelerated motion. There is a pattern to be recognized here. Newton discovered the formula F=m*a. This is Newton's second law.  It has the following meaning, "The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object." 
Clue #1 - Accelerating Motion of Unbalanced Charges Causes Gravity - Electrostatic Fields are Vortex Torsion Fields of Force
It is important to note that energy and force are not defined as the same thing, but they are related. A force is a push or a pull (which corresponds to a mechanical field of force). Super Relativity theory says that the secondary fields of force (magnetism and gravity) are always created by moving electrostatic energy fields. All particle fields are vortex fields which are ultra-small electrostatic fields of force. These field structures are the cause of autonomous particle velocities. Understanding the relationship between moving charges and the aether they reside within is the beginning of the pattern to be recognized. An electrostatic field of force or energy in accelerated motion creates mass. The more we accelerate an energetic particle, the greater its mass will be. This conceptual pathway is the same pathway discussed in Einstein’s paper, “Unified Field Theory Based on Riemannian Metrics and Distant Parallelism.” In this paper, he discusses the twist of local systems related to Special Relativity's tensors. He also states that he was working on deriving the equations of motion for particles. 
Clue #2 - Balanced Charges in Linear Motion Manifest No Mass - Unbalanced Charges Moving in Accelerated Motion Impart Upon a Particle the Property of Mass
Einstein also said E=mc^2. This equation given to us by Einstein has a physical meaning.Somehow energy can be transformed into mass, and mass can be transformed into energy. Again, if we change this equation to solve for mass, we get E/c^2=m which says something very similar to Newton's equation. If we put energy in accelerated motion (an unbalanced charge in accelerated motion), we will discover that mass will emerge as a result.
On the other hand, if we put energy in motion (a balanced charge in motion at the speed of light), we will discover that the particle becomes pure energy and will have no mass. Pure energy is an electrostatic field composed of a balanced charge. This type of particle structure creates no mass as it moves. Photons are balanced charged energy fields. Photons travel in a straight line and do not accelerate. The pattern to be recognized is as follows. Energy in accelerated motion causes mass to emerge. Energy that does not accelerate does not cause mass. The next step is to refine the principle by specifying the circumstances. What type of energy and motion causes the phenomena of mass, gravity, and inertia? 
Clue #3 - The Principle of Equivalence is the Vital Realization that Pointed to the Origin of Mass
Over time, Einstein realized the Principle of Equivalence, and it states that an accelerated system is completely physically equivalent to a system inside a gravitational field.  Somehow, gravity makes massive objects accelerate, and when objects accelerate within space, their mass increases. The key is in understanding the mechanical cause of this strange relationship between acceleration and gravity. The Super Relativity reality model explains the causal nexus of the gravitational field as it relates to acceleration.
Strategic Concepts Included in this Paper
Research into the History of Physics concerning both electromagnetism and gravity
Correct the Errors of Misinterpretation that Changed the Course of Physics
Choose the Proper Path and Physical Model
Explain the Super Relativity Reality Model
Recognize the Hidden Patterns from the Clues Embedded within the History of Physics
Recognize and Repair Improper Interpretations
Establish and Enhance Principles of Physical Theory
Explain the Central Cause of Gravity, Mass, and Inertia
Discovery of Anti-Gravity Field
Research into the History of Physics
To find the correct solution for the Unified Field Theory, I put great effort into evaluating and understanding the history of theoretical physics. I journeyed as far back as Isaac Newton's time 1642-1726. The purpose of this effort was to ascertain which model is the correct model. The main choices were Classical Mechanics, which includes Special and General Relativity (Objective Reality), a theory of the macroscopic realm, and Quantum Mechanics, a theory of the microscopic realm. These two models are fundamentally different theoretical models that have different formulations. It is not just a matter of scientific terminology; it is a clash of genuinely incompatible descriptions of reality.  In general relativity, the field of force is continuous and deterministic, meaning that every cause matches a specific, local effect.
In quantum mechanics, events produced by the interaction of subatomic particles happen in jumps (yes, quantum leaps), with probabilistic rather than definite outcomes. Quantum rules allow connections forbidden by classical physics.  Based on the evidence, I had to decide whether the Universe is built upon a principle of uncertainty or a deterministic principle. I chose the deterministic object reality model. That model makes scientific sense. Speaking from the scientific point of view, I have come to believe that a theory that makes sense is the theory that leads to absolute truth. I am talking about discovering a theoretical model that can explain experimental evidence in a sensible way. In my opinion, a sensible scientific theory will always be the theory that turns out to be correct. The theory of Super Relativity is about the acknowledgment of the correct interpretation for explaining how the Universe works.
Clue #4 - The First Major Discovery Concerning Gravity - Newton Links Acceleration to Mass
There is much evidence stored away within the annals of physics that supports the deterministic theory. I went as far back as Newton's time to accumulate supporting evidence. Newton discovered a momentous principle which was the establishment of the Second Law of Motion. Newton's Second Law of motion is F = ma. The proper interpretation of the meaning of this formula is crucial. It is the first clue of a significant pattern to be recognized. Newton discovered that a force in accelerated motion F/a=m would result in a quantity of mass.  This discovery establishes the first link between acceleration and mass. A force in an accelerated motion = mass. This concept demonstrates that there is a mechanical relationship between acceleration and gravity. I believe that Newton's F=ma should be considered as the mechanical cause of inertial mass. Then there is Newton's Gravitational mass equation, F=GMm/r2.  This equation strongly suggests that the origin of gravity or mass comes about from the same mechanical process. According to the theory of Super Relativity, the gravitational force is emitted from particles due to the fundamental particle's (quarks) inertial motion relative to a stationary aether.  In this case, rotational kinetic energy leads to the emergence of a gravitational field.
This formula means the force (F) acting on an object is equal to the mass (m) of an object times its acceleration (a). Therefore, the more mass an object has, the more force you need to accelerate it, and the greater the force applied to the object, the greater the object's acceleration.  According to the Theory of Super Relativity, when we modify this equation to solve for mass, we have this equation: F/a=m. We should now interpret the equation to mean that we can generate mass when we put a force into an accelerated motion.
The Next Two Clues Concerning Gravity and Mass come from Einstein.
1. The Strong Equivalence Principle Analysis
2. Mass Equivalence Principle is Linked to the Motion of Energy Within the Aether
Clue # 5 - The Strong Equivalence Principle Analysis
The next piece of evidence to deal with comes from Einstein's Strong Equivalence Principle. Einstein realized that an accelerated system is equivalent to a system inside a gravitational field.  Somehow, when objects that already have so-called rest mass are accelerated, they experience the same force of gravity (via inertial resistance to acceleration) as a person who is in a stationary gravitational field. The Equivalence Principle means that by some unknown physical reason, the acceleration of an object with rest mass through empty flat Euclidean space has the same effect as an object with rest mass being in a gravitational field. The force that the accelerating object experiences is a virtual force of gravity.
Clue # 6 - Mass to Energy Equivalence Principle is Linked to the Motion of Energy Within the Aether
This previously mentioned clue is E=mc2. This equation also shows the link that energy in motion relative to the aether is equal to mass. M=E/c2
There is a clear pattern emerging from all three phenomena. Gravity, mass, and inertia are all linked to energy in motion within a spatial medium. Energy or a force in motion seems to be able to generate gravity, mass, and inertial resistance to motion. This was the pattern I recognized many years ago 
Faraday's Discoveries Leads to Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory
There are other clues that have been ignored or misinterpreted that came from the work of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell, along with other scientists of that time. These great scientists were on the correct path for revealing the central cause of the gravitational field and electromagnetism.
Many of the concepts that these brilliant men had established in their time guided me to important discoveries that are now included in the theory of Super Relativity:
1. The aether theory was then and is now the correct explanation for our objective reality. The aether is the medium in which forces and particles act out their roles in providing the emergence of an objective reality and the observable Universe.
2. The theory of Super Relativity agrees with the scientists of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. All particles and fields of force are waves in the medium and are consubstantial with the medium. Particle structure waves (particles) exist in the aether medium and are manifest as quanta. Particles are various types of deformations of a quasi-elastic solid.  The three primary fields of force are continuous force fields and are large-scale mechanical deformations within the quasi-elastic solid.
3. The critical discovery that gets all of the world of physics moving in the right direction comes from Michael Faraday. Faraday, the chief experimentalist in electricity and magnetism of the 19th century and one of the greatest experimental physicists of all time, worked on and off for ten years trying to prove that a magnet could induce electricity.  He proved that the motion of two related force fields was the critical ingredient for connecting magnetism to electricity. He proved that the motion of electrostatic charge created magnetism, and the motion of the magnetic field caused electrons to move within a conductor. For me, the great realization was that magnetism always comes about as the motion of charge within the aether.  The Universe loves symmetry. Now we can proceed to Maxwell's discoveries that came from Faraday's experiments and observations.
The History and Discoveries of James Clerk Maxwell
Most modern physicists regard Maxwell as the scientist of the 19th century who had the greatest influence on 20th century physics. Maxwell is ranked with Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein as one of the most influential physicists of all time. In 1931, on the 100th anniversary of Maxwell's birth, Einstein described the change in the conception of reality in physics that resulted from Maxwell's work as "the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton." 
The relationship between the motion of particle-wave energy relative to an aether continues with Maxwell's work. His theory of electromagnetism was based upon an aether theory model. Like Newton, he was a firm believer in the aether.
Maxwell said, "Another theory of electricity, which I prefer, denies action at a distance and attributes electric action to tensions and pressures in an all-pervading medium, these stresses being the same in kind with those familiar to engineers, and the medium being identical with that in which light is supposed to be propagated." 
The theory of the plenum has been refined in the theory of Super Relativity. It has evolved from being considered a gaseous or a fluid material to its final most sensible state. I like Einstein and Lorentz believe the aether to be a quasi-elastic solid. Maxwell also believed in the idea of a plenum. He stated, "The theory of the plenum is associated with the doctrine of mathematical continuity, and its mathematical methods are those of the Differential Calculus, which is the appropriate expression of the relations of continuous quantity."  I completely agree with this statement.
Maxwell's most significant contribution was his Theory of Electromagnetism. He measured the ratio of electromagnetic and electrostatic units of electricity and confirmed that it was in satisfactory agreement with the velocity of light as his theory predicted. 
It was Maxwell's research on electromagnetism that established him among the great scientists of history. In the preface to his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873), the best exposition of his theory, Maxwell stated that his primary task was to convert Faraday's physical ideas into mathematical form. Maxwell constructed a mechanical model to illustrate Faraday's law of induction (that a changing magnetic field gives rise to an induced E-field or electric current). He found that the model gave rise to a corresponding "displacement current" in the dielectric medium, which could then be the seat of transverse waves. On calculating the rate of motion of these waves, he found that they were very close to the velocity of light. Maxwell concluded that he could "scarcely avoid the inference that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena." 
The Aether is a Solid
It is now widely known that transverse waves primarily travel within solids.  This realization is more evidence that proves the existence of the aether. Maxwell's discoveries of light and electric and magnetic waves being undulations in a medium eventually paved the way for scientists of later generations to realize that the plenum had to be of a solid form. We know this to be true because only solids have shear strength. The shear strength of a solid medium is necessary to hold the objects together and prevent them from falling apart. It was also thought by the scientists of the nineteenth century that the medium had to be a solid because particles are persistent and therefore stable. This fact means that particles must be consubstantial with the medium they reside within. If the medium was either a liquid or a gas, particle geometries would not be stable and able to last for billions of years.
The Einstein - Lorentz Aether – is a Quasi-Elastic Solid
Eventually, as more experiments were performed and a better understanding of classical field theory was obtained, it became firmly established that the aether must be a quasi-elastic solid. From 1890 to 1905, both Hendrick Antoon Lorentz and Albert Einstein worked on the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Henri Poincaré, the brilliant French mathematician and physicist, also discovered and independently developed the mathematical formulas known as the Lorentz Transformations. The Lorentz Transformations are the heart and soul of Special Relativity. All three of these great scientists firmly believed in the existence of the aether. How could so many great scientists be wrong? The aether hypothesis must be correct. Then came the experiment that changed the course of physics.
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
The Michelson-Morley experiment was an experiment that was designed to detect the Earth's motion relative to the stationary luminiferous aether. All attempts to reveal the aether wind failed. The experiment compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions to detect the relative motion of the Earth through the stationary luminiferous aether ("aether wind").  The result was negative. Michelson and Morley found no significant difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether and the speed of light at a right angle to the direction of motion. This result is generally considered to be the first strong evidence against the then-prevalent aether theory and initiated a line of research that eventually led to special relativity, which supposedly rules out a stationary aether.  The first results of the experiment were released in 1887, well before Einstein released his paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Special Relativity.
The Michelson-Morley Experiment Influenced Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity
Einstein knew about the Michelson-Morley null result while working on Special Relativity. Subsequently, it has been well established that Einstein was aware of the null result years before he completed his Special Relativity Theory. It has become my belief that Einstein deliberately disassociated the Theory of Special Relativity from Aether Theory. Instead, Einstein emphasized a kinematical solution and injected into physics one of the most significant flaws in modern-day physics. Kinematics is the branch of mechanics concerned with the motion of objects without reference to the forces which cause the motion.I believe that the cause of particle motion must be considered in equations that model physical reality. When including this aspect of physical reality, we will be able to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment's null result adequately. I now realized that the explanation provided by Einstein and others concerning the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment in 1905 was not the proper explanation. This mistake created significant problems in physics, which sent everyone in a direction away from a classical and mechanical interpretation of our physical reality.
The Incorrect Conclusion Explaining the Michelson-Morley Obtained as a Consequence of the Null Result.
Since the M&M experiment failed to detect the Earth's movement relative to the stationary aether, it was assumed by everyone at that time to mean there was no aether. What the experiment failed to do was detect an aether wind. Since there was no aether wind, it was assumed there was no aether. At that time, scientists failed to properly analyze and discover the true reason for the null result.
My research and analysis have led me to the proper explanation of the null result. The reason for the failure to detect absolute motion relative to the aether is hidden in plain view. It is clearly stated in Special Relativity. Einstein says within Special Relativity, "We will raise this conjecture (the purport of which will hereafter be called the "Principle of Relativity") to the status of a postulate, and also introduce another postulate, which is only apparently irreconcilable with the former, namely, that light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity which is independent of the all other moving frames of reference." 
What is not stated is how light accomplishes the independence of its state of motion. Kinematics allows us to ignore the cause of light’s motion. So, what actually causes photons to move?
The Explanation for Why the Aether Wind was Not Detected
The only way the null result can be explained sensibly is to realize that light's velocity is an absolute motion relative to the stationary aether. Furthermore, its velocity is self-caused. None of a photon's motion comes about from an external cause. All of light's autonomous motion comes about as a result of its geometric structure. The internal vortex structure causes a pressure wave gradient field to be formed within the photon structure. The vortex structure causes space to rotate, and this has a stretching effect which changes the metric of space within the photon.
The change in the metric of space along the x-axis of a particle causes a pressure gradient within all particle types. The pressure wave gradient is what provides 100 percent of light's velocity. The maximum speed of a photon is determined by the two fundamental properties of space: permittivity and permeability. This equation defines the maximum velocity of a fundamentally stable balanced charge particle within the aether.
 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
Thus, with the help of a sensible approach, it can now be understood that the Michelson-Morley Experiment could never detect the absolute motion of the Earth as it traveled within the aether. No externally caused-motion that comes from a light-emitting source will have any effect on the motion of photons. Therefore, I have concluded that the design of the experiment was flawed from the beginning. Since we did not understand the cause of the photon's motion, we had no possibility of properly interpreting the null result. Thus, the experiment was doomed to failure. We did, however, prove that the speed of light is constant relative to all other moving frames of reference. The only exception is that the velocity of light can be changed when we bias the medium with a force field such as gravity or magnetism.
Since Galileo's time, physicists have used the concept of kinematical analysis to analyze moving systems. I have discovered that this type of limited analysis leads to the development of incomplete theories. Therefore, we now have a situation in which all three of the major successful theories in use now are incomplete. I am not saying they are incorrect. They are simply limited in what they can tell us about the foundational mechanics of reality. This incompleteness is apparent when the equations fail to describe certain natural but extreme circumstances. In these extreme circumstances, the equations break down and cause infinities to appear. Quantum Mechanics is incomplete, as Einstein said, and both Special and General Relativity are also incomplete. The theory of Super Relativity completes Special and General Relativity by extending them to include the cause of the motion of all fundamental particles.
The Greatest Error of Interpretation in Modern Day Science
The null result of the Michelson-Morley Experiment led Einstein to change his explanation for the Lorentz Transformations. This event forced him to change the interpretation of Special Relativity from using an aether model into a model in which an aether does not exist. Historians have become clear that Einstein was aware of the Michelson - Morley Experiment null result in advance of their final announcement, which happened in 1905, just a few months after Einstein submitted his paper on Special Relativity. The experiment was first performed in Germany in the years 1880-1881 by Michelson. The experiment was later redone in 1887 by Michelson and Morley.
This null result seriously discredited the aether theories of the time, and it ultimately led Einstein to declare the speed of light is a universal constant. 
Here are the statements that Einstein deliberately inserted into Special Relativity to detach the theory of Special Relativity from the aether, leading to the misinterpretation of Special Relativity.
"Examples of this sort, together with the unsuccessful attempts to discover any motion of the earth relatively to the "light medium," suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest. They suggest rather that, as has already been shown to the first order of small quantities, the same laws of electrodynamics and optics will be valid for all frames of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good. We will raise this conjecture (the purport of which will hereafter be called the "Principle of Relativity") to the status of a postulate, and also introduce another postulate, which is only apparently irreconcilable with the former, namely, that light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body.
The introduction of a "luminiferous ether" will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an "absolutely stationary space" provided with special properties, nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place." 
Unfortunately, the misinterpretation of the null result of the Michelson–Morley experiment caused Einstein to disassociate the Theory of Special Relativity from the aether. This rift in the interpretation of reality and this change in thought caused the world of science and humanity to be guided toward the new paradigm in physics, which was the up-and-coming Quantum Mechanics. I believe the Quantum Mechanics model will eventually be proven to be an improper model for explaining the fundamental mechanics of the Universe. The incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics is a large, complicated topic beyond this document's scope.
Later, after Einstein discovered General Relativity, he realized that the aether must exist, and he tried to restore the aether model. But, unfortunately, by then, it was too late. The world had become entranced by Quantum Mechanics and has fallen under the spell of its many false doctrines.
Here are some statements that come from his speech Ether and the Theory of Relativity. He made this speech at the University of Leiden on 5 May 1920. In my opinion, this document is undoubtedly one of the most important and comprehensive discussions concerning the metaphysical aspects of our physical reality. But, unfortunately, for the most part, it has been ignored by the world of modern-day physics.
I include the entire speech here with my commentary and analysis injected within the document. My comments are in blue. In addition, I add the information of how Super Relativity refines the elder day aether theory.